The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 ranks as one of the most significant earthquakes in U.S. history. It struck the San Francisco Bay area at 5:12 a.m. on April 18th, 1906. The earthquake claimed lives of 700-3,000 people, left about 225K homeless in San Francisco after the event – At the time, the population of San Francisco was estimated about 400K. It was reported that about 28,000 buildings were destroyed due to strong shaking and fire following earthquake which lasted three days after the earthquake. Over 80% of buildings of the city of San Francisco suffered from the shaking and the fire. Monetary loss at the time of the event was estimated more than USD 400 million.

More than several researchers have tried to estimate the fatalities and loss of a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. These studies consider population change, building value (or exposure value) change, and the change of strength of building due to design code change over the years. One of the studies estimated that the fatalities range 800-3,400 and the loss would be USD 90 – 120 billion. The study also provided about 160,000 – 250,000 people would be displaced due to the damage to buildings. Moreover, significant damage is anticipated to infrastructure such as power grid, water systems, and transportation networks.

According to the community of seismologists and geologists, 1906-type earthquake would repeat at every 200 years yet other smaller events (Magnitude < 7) that could be from Hayward fault, Rodgers Creek fault or the Peninsula segment of San Andreas fault. These events  can occur over next 30 years and hit hard on the San Francisco area and produce significant loss.